Exploring Anatomy & Physiology In The Laboratory Pdf – Kinetic profile of urinary metabolites after acute administration of phenolic compound-rich Juçara juice (Euterpe edulis Mart.) and antioxidant capacity in serum and erythrocytes: a human study

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Exploring Anatomy & Physiology In The Laboratory Pdf

Exploring Anatomy & Physiology In The Laboratory Pdf

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Urea Cycle: Functions, Steps, Products, Regulation, Disorders

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Exploring the therapeutic potential of targeting GH and IGF-1 in the management of obesity: insights from the interaction of these hormones and metabolism

Physiological Implications Of Hydrogen Sulfide: A Whiff Exploration That Blossomed

Sarmed Al-Sameria Sarmed Al-Sameria Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications * and Sally Radovick Sally Radovick Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications

Laboratory of Human Growth and Reproductive Development, Department of Pediatrics, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA

Received: 27 April 2023 / Revised: 23 May 2023 / Accepted: 29 May 2023 / Published: 31 May 2023

Exploring Anatomy & Physiology In The Laboratory Pdf

(This article belongs to the Special Issue, Advances in Understanding Adipose Tissue Biology and Energy Metabolism)

Quantitative Proteomic Study Reveals Up Regulation Of Camp Signaling Pathway Related Proteins In Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide, and GH and IGF-1 have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for the management of this condition. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive view of the interaction between GH and IGF-1 and metabolism in the context of obesity. We conducted a systematic review of the literature published from 1993 to 2023 using the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases. We included studies that examined the effects of GH and IGF-1 on adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, and weight regulation in humans and animals. Our review highlights the physiological functions of GH and IGF-1 in adipose tissue metabolism, including lipolysis and adipogenesis. We also discuss potential mechanisms underlying the effects of these hormones on energy balance, such as their effects on insulin sensitivity and appetite regulation. In addition, we summarize current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of GH and IGF-1 as therapeutic targets for obesity management, including pharmacological interventions and hormone replacement therapy. Finally, we address the challenges and limitations of targeting GH and IGF-1 in the management of obesity.

Obesity is a common health condition associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer [ 1 ]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1.9 billion adults (18 years and older) were overweight in 2016, with more than 650 million classified as obese. This represents a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity, which has doubled since 1980. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that in 2020, 42.4% of adults in the United States were classified as obese. This tendency is especially pronounced among them. Middle-aged, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black adults. Moreover, childhood and adolescent obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States, where nearly one in five children/adolescents between the ages of two and nineteen are classified as obese.

Obesity is a complex condition caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors, including diet, physical activity, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. It is characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat resulting from a positive energy balance (more calories intake than expenditure) and insufficient physical activity, which disrupts energy balance and normal physiological homeostasis [2]. The fundamental components of energy balance include energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy storage, which interact in a complex manner to influence body weight and body fat ratio [3, 4]. Obesity management is best approached through a combination of lifestyle changes and physical activity. This involves eating a balanced and nutritious diet, reducing sedentary behavior and exercising regularly. However, to cope with the demanding nature of modern life, additional therapeutic interventions may be necessary. These may include medications, surgical procedures, and hormone therapy.

Several lines of evidence support the idea that energy balance is primarily regulated by the neuroendocrine system (NES), a complex system that integrates neuronal and hormonal signals [ 5 , 6 ]. Growth hormone (GH), also referred to as the “master hormone,” exerts regulatory control over metabolic homeostasis and exerts multifaceted effects on many physiological processes.

Layers Of The Skin

GH has been shown to increase metabolism and improve insulin sensitivity, thereby regulating blood glucose levels and reducing the risk of obesity-related health complications, including T2DM [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. Although GH stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose production [ 11 , 12 , 13 ], it induces insulin resistance and reduces glucose uptake in skeletal muscle [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. In addition, GH promotes lipolysis, which reduces fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, and in apparent contradiction, a mouse model in which GHR was abrogated in white adipocytes showed increased systemic insulin sensitivity despite promoting body fat accumulation [17]. Although the exact mechanisms by which GHR ablation leads to increased insulin sensitivity in white adipocytes remain to be explored, it has been suggested that changes in adipokine secretion or changes in lipid metabolism may be involved.

GH production is mainly controlled by the opposing actions of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST), as well as a feedback mechanism mediated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) [5, 18. ]. GH is released in the pituitary gland and binds to specific receptors on target cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular events. This signaling pathway activates various signaling molecules, such as Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), leading to the activation of downstream pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. GH signaling also influences the production and release of IGF-1, which further mediates its effects on target tissues (see Figure 1).

IGF-1 has a high degree of structural similarity to insulin and binds strongly to the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), activating both the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways. target tissue [19, 20]. Most of the circulating IGF-1 originates from liver cells and its production and release is controlled by GH [21].

Exploring Anatomy & Physiology In The Laboratory Pdf

In addition to its potential to reduce fat mass, GH treatment has been studied for its therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. For example, GH deficiency (GHD) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and reduced quality of life [22]. GH replacement therapy has been shown to improve cardiac function, body composition, and, to some extent, overall well-being in GHD patients [ 1 , 10 ]. GH treatment has also been investigated for its potential in the management of metabolic disorders such as T2DM and metabolic syndrome [1, 10]. Although the effects of GH on glucose metabolism are still controversial, some studies have shown improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis as a result of GH treatment in T2DM patients [23]. Therefore, GH therapy may have potential therapeutic implications in the management of various diseases beyond obesity.

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Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities, there is an urgent need for effective strategies to manage this condition. Modulation of the GH and IGF-1 axis may offer a promising solution, as these hormones have been shown to regulate metabolic processes and body composition. However, further research is needed to fully understand the complex relationship between GH, IGF-1, and metabolism. Furthermore, the safety of GH therapy requires careful consideration due to its ability to induce anabolic effects by stimulating protein synthesis and cell proliferation [ 11 , 24 , 25 ].

It is important to note that animal models may not necessarily be directly applicable to humans, and more clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the potential benefits and risks of GH therapy in the management of obesity. Therefore, caution should be exercised when extrapolating the results of animal studies to humans, and further research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of GH therapy in the human population.

This review aims to assess the therapeutic potential of targeting the GH and IGF-1 axis in the management of obesity by examining their interactions with metabolism.

In this review, we conducted a comprehensive literature search using electronic databases including PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. We used the following search terms:

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