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“restoring Balance: Environmental Advocacy And Benefits Of Legal Action”

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By Hendra Gunawan Hendra Gunawan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Irma Yeny Irma Yeny Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Endang Karlina Endang Karlina Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Sri Suharti Sri Suharti Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Murniati Murniati Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Subarudi Subarudi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Budi Mulyanto Budi Mulyanto Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Sulistya Ekawati Sulistya Ekawati Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, Raden Raden Garsetiasih Preprints. org Google Scholar 1, Pratiwi Pratiwi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Bugi Kabul Sumirat Bugi Kabul Sumirat Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Reny Sawitri Reny Sawitri Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Nur M. Heriyanto Nur M. Heriyanto Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Mariana Takandjandji Mariana Takandjandji Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Asmanah Widarti Asmanah Widarti Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, Surati Surati Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, Desmiwati Google Desmiprints. Scholar 4, Titi Kalima Titi Kalima Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Rachman Effendi Rachman Effendi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Edwin Martin Edwin Martin Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, Nur Arifatul Ulya Nur Arifatul Ulya Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5, Sylviani Sylviani Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4 and Ari Nurlia Ari Nurlia Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4add Show full author list Remove Hide full author list

Research Center for Ecology and Ethnobiology-National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km.46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia

A Meta Analysis Of The Ecological And Economic Outcomes Of Mangrove Restoration

Population Research Center, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), JL. Gatot Subroto No. 10, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia

Research Center for Society and Culture, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Gedung Sasana Widya Sarwono Lantai 06, JL. Jend. Gatot Subroto No.10, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia

Research Center for Behavioral and Circular Economy, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Gedung Widya Graha Lt.4, JL. Jend. Gatot Subroto No.10, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia

Received: 17 October 2022 / Revised: 1 December 2022 / Accepted: 3 December 2022 / Published: 15 December 2022

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Social forestry (SF) has long been implemented in production and protected forests in Indonesia. SF is considered a win-win solution for occupied and cultivated forest areas. The purpose of this paper was to review the implementation of social forestry in Indonesia and its strengths and challenges. The secondary objective was to synthesize the lessons learned and recommendations for the government on designing SF that can integrate the goal of forest biodiversity conservation and the social well-being of the surrounding communities. The study used a systematic literature review (SLR) of international and national peer-reviewed articles. The results of the study indicate that SF is intended to achieve benefits in three main areas: social, economic and ecological. However, the review found that the ecological aspects of biodiversity conservation often receive less attention compared to the social and economic goals. A strong point of SF implementation is increasing community access to forest land use, while a challenge that needs to be solved is that among others communities in forest management can result in fragmentation and changes to animal habitats; therefore, there is the potential for population decline and extinction. This research advises policy makers to pay more attention to ecological functions to ensure the sustainability of forest in SF development.

Social forestry (SF) emerged in forest management as a paradigm to address various problems in tropical countries that cannot be solved by forestry science alone, and it requires effective community participation. The concept of SF arises from the perspective that forest management problems can be solved by involving communities that depend on forest resources as an important part of their livelihood [1]. The main objective of SF is to meet the basic daily needs of the local community from the forest, such as fuel, fodder, food, wood, income and environmental services [2]. SF also aims to create flows of production and benefits for the community, on both publicly owned (state) and private land [3]. The Government of Indonesia defines social forestry as a sustainable forest management system implemented in state or private/customary forests by local communities or indigenous societies to improve well-being, environmental balance and socio-cultural dynamics in the form of village forests (VFs), forest communities (FCs), community plantation forests (CPFs), customary forests (CFs), and forestry partnerships (FPs) [4].

The implementation of SF involves multiple stakeholders, and it has been developed in Southeast Asia in conservation areas, timber concession areas, fallow forests, and locally managed agroforestry systems for a long time [ 5 ]. In Indonesia, community involvement in forest management has existed since the 1960s, particularly in forests managed by Perhutani on Java Island through an intercropping system. Since 1972, various approaches to community involvement have been developed, such as the welfare approach, forest village community development (1982), social forestry (1984), integrated forest village community development (1994), and collaborative forest management (2001) [6 ].

The SF program originated when participatory forestry development was first launched by the National Commission for Agriculture in India in 1976. Indonesia took community involvement in forest management after the Eighth World Congress on Forestry in Jakarta in 1978, which had the theme “forest for people” [7]. This SF policy has been developed since the 1990s through the community forestry regulation (CF), which was introduced in 1995 (Decree of the Minister of Forestry No. 622/1995). Through Government Regulation No.

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Since 2016, all forest management schemes involving communities have been combined and simplified under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) Regulation no. P.83/2016 regarding social forestry. The regulation defines five social forestry schemes: VP, CF, CPF, FP, and CF. SF can be implemented through VF, CF and FP schemes in protected forests and through VF, CF, CPF and FP schemes in production forests. In forest conservation, SF can only be implemented through FP schemes, and customary forest schemes are only implemented in customary areas [6]. SF regulation in Indonesia is very dynamic, as evidenced by the issuance of MoEF Regulation No.

Although policies and regulations continue to be refined, their role in saving biodiversity from extinction is still questionable. First, until now SF has been applied to production and protected forests, which are mainly not intended to preserve biodiversity. This is due to the forest management system in Indonesia based on law number 41 of 1999, which divides the main functions of forests into three, namely production, protection and conservation. Although, of course, forests also have the function of preserving biodiversity, the implementation is not the main goal of management in forest production and protection. Second, the development of SF in conservation forests as a method of conflict resolution with surrounding communities is still new, and there are not many reports of their success. Protecting and maintaining the sustainability of biodiversity is important for Indonesia as one of the megadiverse countries of the world [8].

The Indonesian government had targeted an SF permit for an area of ​​12.7 million hectares in 2019 [9, 10]. Overall, the accumulation of forest area managed under social forestry schemes as of September 2022 was 5.077 million hectares, involving 1.106 million households and 7678 license units [11]. It is clear from these data that the conservation of biodiversity is a challenge when applied in combination with SF programs in all forest functions, and even in ordinary forests. In the past, biodiversity conservation was more related to the management of protected areas and natural forests and lacked the opportunities for community involvement in forest management. Paying more attention to the process and implementation of SF could minimize the risks related to biodiversity loss occurring outside protected areas [12].

In accordance with current facts and trends,

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