“seasonal Trading Opportunities: Exploiting Annual Patterns For Profit In Australia” – The proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels decreased to 64.6 percent in 2019, which was 1.2 percent less than in 2017 (Figure 23). This fraction was 90 percent in 1974. In contrast, the percentage of stocks fished at biologically unsustainable levels has increased since the late 1970s, from 10 percent in 1974 to 35.4 percent in 2019. This calculation treats all fish stocks equally, regardless of their abundance and catch. Biologically sustainable stocks accounted for 82.5 percent of the 2019 estimated stocks landed as monitored by .

Biologically sustainable stocks consist of maximum sustainably harvested and underharvested stocks, representing 57.3 percent and 7.2 percent of the total assessed stocks respectively in 2019. Underharvested stocks maintained a declining trend throughout the period (recovering slightly in 2018 and 2019), while maximum sustainably harvested stocks declined between 1974 and 1989 to increase, reaching 57.3 percent in 2019. In 2019, among the 16 major fisheries in The Southeast Pacific (Area 87) has the highest percentage (66.7 percent) of stocks fished at unsustainable levels, followed by the Mediterranean and Black Seas (Area 37) at 63.4 percent (Figure 24). In contrast, the Northeast Pacific (Zone 67), East Central Pacific (Zone 77), West Central Pacific (Zone 71), and Southwest Pacific (Zone 81) have the lowest share (13–23 percent) of stocks fished at biologically unsustainable levels. Other areas ranged between 27 percent and 45 percent in 2019 (Figure 24). Fish landings vary considerably between fishing areas (Figure 9b) and therefore the importance of each area to global fisheries sustainability may vary depending on its proportional contribution to global landings. The temporal pattern of landings of an area often reveals information about its ecological productivity, stage of fishery development, management and stock status. In general, after excluding the arctic and antarctic areas that have negligible discharges, three groups of patterns can be observed (Figure 25): (i) areas with a general tendency to decrease discharges after historical peaks; (ii) areas with catches that have fluctuated around a globally stable value since 1990, associated with the dominance of pelagic, short-lived species; and (iii) areas with a continuous upward trend in catches since 1950. The first group has the lowest percentage of biologically resistant stocks (59.2 percent), the second group the highest (76.1 percent), while the third is in between (67.0 percent). When management intervention is not strong, an increasing catch trend (the third group) suggests fishing development and a lack of control, with resource sustainability most likely in good condition. However, when there is an increasing trend, the stock estimate may involve high uncertainty and be unreliable due to the lack of contrast resulting from the one-way pattern in catch or catch per unit effort. In contrast, a trend towards a decrease in catch (the first group) usually implies a deterioration in the sustainability of fish stocks or the application of strict regulations, but no recovery. The highest level of sustainability (the second group) is likely to be associated with fully developed fisheries, mature management and effective fisheries regulation. However, other issues such as environmental changes and social factors can also affect catch trends. Box 3 illustrates the plan to revise the current assessment methodology to better reflect the major changes that have occurred in the relative abundance of different fishery resources.

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Regularly assesses and monitors the state of the world’s marine fisheries resources with results published every two years in

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(SOFIA) since 1995. The objective of the assessment is to provide an overview of the global and regional state of marine fisheries resources to assist in policy formulation and decision-making for the long-term sustainability of these resources. As marine fisheries have evolved, both the assessment methods and the relative data available have undergone significant changes. The current methodology was revised in 2011

And has not been updated since. In order to continue to provide a comprehensive and objective global analysis, it has decided to revise the methodology to better reflect the major changes that have occurred in the relative dominance of different fish resources and to base the analysis on an updated and more comprehensive list of fish stocks. The new methodology will update the stock list and provide a multi-level and transparent approach to new analysis with newer reporting formats. Furthermore, these changes are expected to engage more directly with the growing community of evaluation and management institutions and experts in member countries and thereby improve transparency.

The revised plan to address these issues in future State of the World Marine Fisheries reports is to adopt a regional strategy where assessment gaps can be narrowed over time by using a tiered approach related to the level of information available. The first and most important step is to update the list of stocks considered in the analysis in each region, thereby better reflecting current fishing realities in different parts of the world. This will be done in collaboration with local experts, through regional workshops and new forms of consultation, such as Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicator 14.4.1 (Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels), country-specific questionnaires. The tiered assessment approach depends on the quality of data and additional information for each region:

To demonstrate the proof of concept of this multi-tiered approach in a transparent SOFIA evaluation framework, two statistical areas (Area 31 and Area 37) will be piloted to be presented at the Thirty-Fifth Session of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) in 2022 comparing the current and the new approach in terms of obtained indicators. The pilot will document the data, workflow, analysis and reporting in a standardized, easily reproducible format. In addition, new infographics will be developed (see figure for an example of a preliminary prototype) to provide a more engaging communication format and to present fisheries assessments in a broader context aligned with the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM).

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A detailed work program to achieve the objectives for the modernization of the SOFIA indicator of the state of marine resources will be proposed at the thirty-fifth session of COFI. If approved, examples of multi-layered analysis and new approaches to visual communication will be offered in the 2024 edition.

, will subsequently be published with a detailed description of the methodology. The work program also envisages a process to increase the capacity of national and regional fisheries institutions to assess the state of stocks. The program will encourage greater participation and engagement in global analysis by national institutions by enabling them to regularly submit their analyzes as input to the flagship publication for reporting progress on SDG indicator 14.4.1.


) – an average of 66.7 percent of these stocks were caught within biologically sustainable levels in 2019, slightly higher than the world average of 64.4 percent. European horse mackerel, Atlantic cod and Atlantic herring have a higher than average share of overfished stocks.

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Tuna stocks are of primary importance due to their large catch volume, high economic value and extensive international trade. Moreover, their management is subject to additional challenges due to their highly migratory and often transboundary distribution. At the global level, the seven tuna species of major commercial importance are albacore (

). The main commercial tuna species contributed 5.7 million tonnes of catch in 2019, a 15 percent increase from 2017, but still 14 percent less than the all-time peak in 2014. Average 66.7 the percentage of major commercial tuna species caught within biologically sustainable levels in 2019, slightly higher than the average for all species but unchanged from 2017.

Tuna stocks are closely monitored and assessed extensively, and the status of the seven tuna species listed above is known with moderate uncertainty. However, other species of tuna and tuna-like species remain largely unestimated or assessed with a high degree of uncertainty. This presents a major challenge, as tuna and tuna-like species are estimated to account for at least 15 percent of the total global small-scale fishery catch (, Duke University and WorldFish, forthcoming). In addition, market demand for tuna remains high and tuna fleets continue to have significant overcapacity. Effective management, including better reporting and access to data and enforcement of catch control rules, is needed in all tuna stocks to maintain stocks at sustainable levels and in particular to recover overexploited stocks. In addition, significant additional data collection, reporting and assessment efforts are needed for tuna and tuna-like species other than the main commercial species.

The Northwest Pacific has the highest production among the major fishing areas, producing 24.1 percent of the global catch in 2019. Its total catch varied between 17 million tons and 24 million tons in the 1980s and 1990s, and was around 19.4 million tonnes in 2019 (Figure 25). Historically, the Japanese core (

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) and Alaska pollock were the most productive species, with peak landings of 5.4 million tons and 5.1 million tons, respectively. However, their catch has declined significantly over the past 25 years. In contrast, landings of squid, cuttlefish,

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